Message on posters : Steps to Create Fishbone Diagrams
• Get together the team for brainstorming.
• Draw a long line horizontally across the middle of a large sheet of paper which is known as the spine or the backbone. The spine is not labeled.
• On the right side of the spine is the fish-head. The fish-head is clearly labeled with the problem statement.
• Explain the problem on the fish-head clearly so that everybody in the team understands the same.
• Every likely major cause of the stated problem will be represented by a line (major bone) connecting the "backbone" at an angle of 45 degrees. The line (major bone) is labeled with the cause at its outer end. One line for every likely cause of the problem. The recommended number of major cause is 4 to 7.
• To jump start the process and to ensure logical control over the brainstorming process, the following major causes could be shown as the major branches connecting to the spine: Manufacturing problem: manpower, machines, methods, materials & environment Administration & service problem: Equipment, policies, procedures and people
• Once the major bones of the Fishbone Diagram are labeled, you can start the brainstorming session to identify possible causes (minor bones) to attach to these major causes (major bones). In order to identify sub causes, just keep asking "why does that happen?" or "Why is this happening?" Continue asking "WHY?" till there are no further answers.
• Clarify that the above major causes are just suggestive to get the discussion started and not exhaustive. Other major causes can be added.
• Each participant in the brainstorming session gets the opportunity to state what they think is the cause of the problem. On every turn, each participant can contribute only one cause. He also has the option to simply "pass" if he can't think of any cause in any particular round.
• Each identified cause is mentioned on the branch of the cause or the sub-cause it belongs to. For example, if "machine failure" is a major cause, then "preventative maintenance not carried out" is a cause that is attached to machine failure. The subsidiary cause or sub cause will be represented by a line (minor bone) attached to the cause it is related to.
• One cause can be placed on several branches. Highlight causes that appear more than once as they could be important.
• The brainstorming session ends when everybody passes.
• The Fishbone Diagram, if necessary, should be re-drawn so that position of the major causes along the spine or the backbone suggests the relative importance of the major causes of the problem. The most important major cause should be closest to the fish head.
• The outermost branches or those causes that repeated more than once will suggest what the root cause(s) or the most likely cause(s) of the problem are.
• Place the "most likely causes" in a priority order with the first being the “most probable" cause of the problem.
• After further analysis, a plan of action is developed to eliminate the root cause(s) of the problem.
Description : Attractive multi-color 30 X 40 inches posters in English printed on Vinyl paper. The posters have been conceptualised by Avinash Narula and his team.
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The Fishbone diagram is an effective but simple problem-analysis tool. Also known as the Cause-and-Effect Diagram or the root cause analysis identifies the possible causes for an effect or problem. It is also known as the Ishikawa diagram, named after Kaoru Ishikawa, the Japanese quality pioneer who introduced the concept. It can be used to effectively organize a brainstorming session as it assists in sorting ideas into categories as well as the analysis of the causes of a problem. Some the generic major categories of causes of the problem which can be used in Fishbone Diagram are Methods, Machines (equipment), People (manpower), Materials, Measurement and Environment.
The Spaghetti diagram is a flow charting method that uses a continuous line to trace the path of a part through all the phases of a manufacturing process. Spaghetti diagrams identify inefficient layouts as well as unnecessary distance traveled by an item or person between steps. Spaghetti diagrams are a very effective way to observe the flow of the material in a process. It indicates the excess transportation and motion that should be eliminated in order to achieve lean operation.
With the help of the spaghetti diagram, you can establish the optimum layout for a department.